- paste any tags into the HTML on the fly;
- specify the appearance of elements through the class and HTML attributes;
- move any item;
- request data from the user;
- send a request to the server (AJAX technology).
Today, the world is changing faster than at any time. Along with the world, technologies and stacks are reshaped in accordance with new requirements and needs. To improve SDLCs, make those more effective and easy, developers contribute to the development of new toolkits.
Frameworks for back-end development
Node.js stands second after React in the Stack Overflow’s rating. According to Wikipedia, Node.js is a server realization of the JS language based on the V8 engine, designed for building distributed apps like a web server. It is similar to the Twisted framework (Python) and Event Machine (Ruby).
The reason for its popularity is in Node.js capability to build scalable web apps. Scalability is one of the most important factors in the current app development industry. Other cons of Node.js include perfect performance and speed. These features are core things for the apps where performance is critical:
- Real-time messengers
- Content-driven apps where large scopes of data are processed
- E-commerce apps that require high processing speed
Node.js is simple to study and deploy so you can consider it in case you are choosing a technology stack for your project.
Node.js backend framework remains popular in 2021 due to the great support of its community. It is successfully used by eBay, Uber, and LinkedIn.
Front end trends 2021: React vs Angular
Before proceeding to the main tendencies of this year let’s check the front end technologies list:
- HTML adds meaning to the text by logically dividing it and identifying the role that it plays on the page.
- CSS introduces styles and layouts to provide beautiful feels and looks.
- JS offers great dynamics for making and handling the change of the document.
React and Angular technologies have already been the subjects of our research so you can easily learn Which Is Better, Angular or React? Put it shortly, both technologies are widely used for software development. Each of those has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Angular, as a front-end development framework, is used by such giants as Google, Weather.com, and Forbes. React is used by the front-end developers of Facebook, Airbnb, PayPal, and Uber. Until today, developers choose between React and Angular. However, new JS frameworks appeared recently. Vue.js has already gained confidence among IT experts. Few people believed that Vue.js could become a competing technology to React. According to Stack Overflow, as of 2017 React (66,9%) takes first place in the rating of the popularity of frameworks whereas AngularJS goes 6th (51,7%).
Despite Angular is not so popular as React according to the Stack Overflow survey, it is a ready-to-use solution. Vue.js and React can accept the libraries from third parties. This feature provides flexibility, however, must be used carefully. If compared with React and Angular trends, Vue.js is intuitive, lightweight, and easy to study. It has become one of the main competitors of React. Vue’s community surely isn’t as big as React, but communities grow based on whether the core team listens to its community.
It is expected that all three frameworks will be in a great request next year and beyond.
Frameworks for cross-platform mobile app development
- React Native is cost-effective as the development of 1 app requires only 1 team. For building two different apps for iOS and Android, you will have to hire Java developers and Objective-C developers but with React Native you will need only JS developers.
- The framework provides fast time to market as the entire SDLC of one product takes less time than the development of two different apps. React Native’s community includes around 30,000 members so you will easily find support there.
- Each React’s component can work separately from one another, allowing for minimal and efficient changes to the DOM. Another feature that Facebook developed for React is the use of JSX, an alternative to standard JS Syntax when creating elements. JSX shares similarities with HTML and HTML5, making it readable to software developers who are familiar with those languages.
Despite the obvious advantages of React Native, we can’t but mention the advantages of native development which are as follows:
- API and third-party libraries integration. React Native doesn’t provide many APIs or third-party libraries
- High performance. If you are going to build a sophisticated app with AR/VR components, native development with its high performance and simple implementation capabilities is a perfect fit.
React Native is good for creating simple apps with ready-made components.
Frameworks for cross-platform desktop applications
While ReactNative is used for mobile apps, Electron is used to create JS apps for desktops. The most famous apps developed with Electron are Slack, Atom, Github Desktop, and Discord.
- Automatic updates
- Native menu and notifications
- Messages about errors that can be sent to the remote server
- Fast and simple creation of setup packages for Windows
Frameworks for application rendering
Next.js is a JS-based rendering framework located on the server side. It means that the app’s content is generated by the server. By downloading a page, you already have the content.
The reason for using Next.js is explained by the easy setup process. Besides, your content can become better search-optimized.
You should bear in mind, however, that server-side rendering needs more server resources. Although server-side rendering enhances apps performance, pages with large lists of information may take longer to load.
If you need to create an API architecture, check GraphQL, an API architecture building tool, was one of the hottest topics in the web development industry in 2019. Since it was introduced in 2015, GraphQL has become more popular than REST APIs.
In REST, while sending a request to a certain resource, you get all its properties, even those you don’t require. On the contrary, if the property you need is available on another resource, you should send a new request.
That is the main difference between GraphQL and REST.
With GraphQL you get exactly what you asked. It searches multiple databases as well. There’s no need to send additional queries to get the properties you looked for. GraphQL is lightweight that’s why it provides less network load and higher performance.
Among the disadvantages of GraphQL there are the following things:
- GraphQL is simple to learn but you will need some time to master a new methodology of creating API architectures.
- GraphQL supports no versioning, so the developers have to watch for deprecated features to update their apps.
Companies like Spotify, Walmart, Yelp, Github, and New York Times are using GraphQL API. This is high time to start mastering GraphQL if you want to get jobs at innovative companies.
UI development environment
Storybook is used to design UI for React applications. Using this tool, you can build and test different UI elements. Storybook is all about defining, creating, and testing UI elements without interfering with the UI development. You will spend less time building UI components with Storybook so that the app is done faster.
Jest is recommended as a perfect testing software because it runs tests in parallel improving the performance. The founders say that they wanted to make an out-of-the-box tool because test engineers could write more tests.
Enzyme, one more tool for testing, was introduced by the Airbnb’s team of engineers. It is a JS library designed to test React components. Since 2016 it has got 12,000 stars on Github.
Is JS worth learning?
So, do not hesitate, start learning JS-based frameworks for moving up with the times.
– Each language requires different plug-ins.