Every programmer knows that JavaScript is one of the most frequently used scripts for application development. The reasons for love to JS are explained by its reliability, convenience, effectiveness for building software products and solutions.

Why JS?

JavaScript is considered to be the best friend of HTML and CSS. HTML defines the layout, CSS is responsible for how your site looks like, and JS revives both. With the help of JS code, programmers determine how the page will respond to the user’s behavior. Today, JavaScript is the only script for browsers. It works for Windows, macOS, Linux, and mobile platforms.

JavaScript is fully integrated with HTML, it is able to change the web page as you like. In response to an event, the programmer can do the following things:

  • paste any tags into the HTML on the fly;
  • specify the appearance of elements through the class and HTML attributes;
  • move any item;
  • request data from the user;
  • send a request to the server (AJAX technology).

Today, the world is changing faster than at any time. Along with the world, technologies and stacks are reshaped in accordance with new requirements and needs. To improve SDLCs, make those more effective and easy, developers contribute to the development of new toolkits.

Most popular JavaScript frameworks 2021 – that’s what about our article.

Frameworks for back-end development

node js - javascript trends 2018

Node.js stands second after React in the Stack Overflow’s rating. According to Wikipedia, Node.js is a server realization of the JS language based on the V8 engine, designed for building distributed apps like a web server. It is similar to the Twisted framework (Python) and Event Machine (Ruby).   

most loved frameworks 2018

The reason for its popularity is in Node.js capability to build scalable web apps. Scalability is one of the most important factors in the current app development industry. Other cons of Node.js include perfect performance and speed. These features are core things for the apps where performance is critical:

  • Real-time messengers
  • Content-driven apps where large scopes of data are processed
  • E-commerce apps that require high processing speed

Node.js is simple to study and deploy so you can consider it in case you are choosing a technology stack for your project.

Node.js backend framework remains popular in 2021 due to the great support of its community. It is successfully used by eBay, Uber, and LinkedIn.

Before proceeding to the main tendencies of this year let’s check the front end technologies list:

  • HTML adds meaning to the text by logically dividing it and identifying the role that it plays on the page.
  • CSS introduces styles and layouts to provide beautiful feels and looks.
  • JS offers great dynamics for making and handling the change of the document.

React and Angular technologies have already been the subjects of our research so you can easily learn Which Is Better, Angular or React? Put it shortly, both technologies are widely used for software development. Each of those has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Angular, as a front-end development framework,  is used by such giants as Google, Weather.com, and Forbes. React is used by the front-end developers of Facebook, Airbnb, PayPal, and Uber.  Until today, developers choose between React and Angular. However, new JS frameworks appeared recently. Vue.js has already gained confidence among IT experts. Few people believed that Vue.js could become a competing technology to React. According to Stack Overflow, as of 2017 React (66,9%) takes first place in the rating of the popularity of frameworks whereas AngularJS goes 6th (51,7%).  

Despite Angular is not so popular as React according to the Stack Overflow survey, it is a ready-to-use solution. Vue.js and React can accept the libraries from third parties. This feature provides flexibility, however, must be used carefully.  If compared with React and Angular trends, Vue.js is intuitive, lightweight, and easy to study. It has become one of the main competitors of React. Vue’s community surely isn’t as big as React, but communities grow based on whether the core team listens to its community.

It is expected that all three frameworks will be in a great request next year and beyond.

Frameworks for cross-platform mobile app development

the future of javascript 2018 and beyond

We can’t but mention iOS and Android SDK for mobile apps development that are used for creating 2 separate apps. In 2015, React Native has provided a great opportunity for developers to design one app that will be meet the requirements of both iOS and Android. React Native is an extension of React, also known as ReactJS or React.js, which was designed for native mobile development. React Native is built with JavaScript, a well-known programming language, and aims to allow the use of native mobile features, functionalities, and integration. Here are some of the key advantages of React native:

  • React Native is cost-effective as the development of 1 app requires only 1 team. For building two different apps for iOS and Android, you will have to hire Java developers and Objective-C developers but with React Native you will need only JS developers.
  • The framework provides fast time to market as the entire SDLC of one product takes less time than the development of two different apps. React Native’s community includes around 30,000 members so you will easily find support there.
  • Each React’s component can work separately from one another, allowing for minimal and efficient changes to the DOM. Another feature that Facebook developed for React is the use of JSX, an alternative to standard JS Syntax when creating elements. JSX shares similarities with HTML and HTML5, making it readable to software developers who are familiar with those languages.
  • Most of the time, a project aimed to create a mobile app will need both a website and a native mobile app. React and React Native can be written by the same engineer and both apps are able to share code as they are both written in JavaScript. With no requirements for a native platform expert, React Native development teams tend to be smaller and more manageable for a product owner or project manager.

Despite the obvious advantages of React Native, we can’t but mention the advantages of native development which are as follows:

  • API and third-party libraries integration. React Native doesn’t provide many APIs or third-party libraries
  • High performance. If you are going to build a sophisticated app with AR/VR components, native development with its high performance and simple implementation capabilities is a perfect fit.

React Native is good for creating simple apps with ready-made components.

Frameworks for cross-platform desktop applications

While ReactNative is used for mobile apps, Electron is used to create JS apps for desktops. The most famous apps developed with Electron are Slack, Atom, Github Desktop, and Discord.

With Electron, it’s quite easy to build an app using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript which will be out of the box for Mac, Windows, and Linux. The key features of Electron include the following things:

  • Automatic updates
  • Native menu and notifications
  • Messages about errors that can be sent to the remote server
  • Fast and simple creation of setup packages for Windows

Frameworks for application rendering

Next.js is a JS-based rendering framework located on the server side. It means that the app’s content is generated by the server. By downloading a page, you already have the content.

The reason for using Next.js is explained by the easy setup process. Besides, your content can become better search-optimized.

You should bear in mind, however, that server-side rendering needs more server resources. Although server-side rendering enhances apps performance, pages with large lists of information may take longer to load.

API architecture

If you need to create an API architecture, check GraphQL, an API architecture building tool, was one of the hottest topics in the web development industry in 2019. Since it was introduced in 2015, GraphQL has become more popular than REST APIs.

In REST, while sending a request to a certain resource, you get all its properties, even those you don’t require. On the contrary, if the property you need is available on another resource, you should send a new request.

That is the main difference between GraphQL and REST.

With GraphQL you get exactly what you asked. It searches multiple databases as well. There’s no need to send additional queries to get the properties you looked for. GraphQL is lightweight that’s why it provides less network load and higher performance.

Among the disadvantages of GraphQL there are the following things:

  • GraphQL is simple to learn but you will need some time to master a new methodology of creating API architectures.
  • GraphQL supports no versioning, so the developers have to watch for deprecated features to update their apps.

Companies like Spotify, Walmart, Yelp, Github, and New York Times are using GraphQL API. This is high time to start mastering GraphQL if you want to get jobs at innovative companies.

UI development environment

Storybook is used to design UI for React applications. Using this tool, you can build and test different UI elements. Storybook is all about defining, creating, and testing UI elements without interfering with the UI development. You will spend less time building UI components with Storybook so that the app is done faster.

Testing tools

Compared to languages such as Java and C#, relatively little tool support is available to assist JS programmers with testing their applications. In current practice, JavaScript programmers construct test cases either manually or using unit testing tools with capture-replay facilities such as Selenium, Watir, and Sahi. These tools provide functionality for recording the GUI actions performed by a user in test scripts, for running a suite of tests, and for visualizing test results. However, even with such tool support, testing remains a challenging and time-consuming activity because each test case must be constructed manually. Obtaining reasonable coverage of an application may be difficult because of JavaScript’s event-driven style, which often gives rise to a combinatorial explosion in the number of possible executions, and because of JavaScript’s extremely dynamic nature, which makes it difficult for users to understand how to write test cases that exercise a particular feature of an application.

Jest, JS frameworks for automated testing, is currently popular with test engineers testing React and JavaScript products.

Jest is recommended as a perfect testing software because it runs tests in parallel improving the performance. The founders say that they wanted to make an out-of-the-box tool because test engineers could write more tests.

Enzyme, one more tool for testing, was introduced by the Airbnb’s team of engineers. It is a JS library designed to test React components. Since 2016 it has got 12,000 stars on Github.

Is JS worth learning?

JavaScript is a suitable language for learning programming. It is quite simple, but it contains all the fundamental things: algorithms, object-oriented model, data structures. If the traditional languages for learning – Pascal and Basic – are of little practical use, then JavaScript is a workhorse.

Beginning with JavaScript is good, and because it is syntactically similar to the great language C. Once you begin studying JavaScript, you will get a basic understanding of all the “C” languages: C ++, C #, Java, PHP. They set the trend in their areas and are very popular, so it is important for a beginner to get acquainted with the syntax of C. A JavaScript program is a simple text. You can write to JavaScript in any text editor.

You can start JavaScript without any knowledge of programming at all. JavaScript is a good choice for the first language, especially if you connect the future with web development. Any skills of programming will be a plus.

If are experienced in HTML and CSS, it’s just fine. Creating a site is logical to start with static pages in HTML and CSS, and then revive them with JavaScript. Plus HTML and CSS provide a basic understanding of how the Internet is organized and sites work.

So, do not hesitate, start learning JS-based frameworks for moving up with the times.

Difference between JavaScript and Java

Both JavaScript and Java are written, assembled and executed differently, and each has dramatic differences when it comes to what it is capable of doing.

Java is used for a great variety of purposes including mobile apps, credit card programming, desktop and web applications. By comparison, JavaScript is mainly used to make web pages more interactive. It can be used as an alternative to Flash, though most developers will tell you that JavaScript is more popular and has more functionality than Flash. JavaScript can be used to do such things as creating animation in HTML.

When it comes to how each language is used, Java is typically used for all server side development, while JavaScript is reserved for developing client-side scripts for functions like validation and interactivity. Among other differences, there are the following:

– Java code must be compiled, and JavaScript code is all-text.
– Each language requires different plug-ins.
– JavaScript code is run on a browser only, while Java creates applications that run in a virtual machine or browser.
– Java is object-oriented programming (OOP) language, and JavaScript is specifically an OOP scripting language.

Our Java team has a strong background in different industries creating the applications that meet customer’s needs. Other Java-based technologies are also available in our stack. So, you can easily consult our specialists on your JavaScript or Java project.